Geological storage of carbon dioxide in Sweden and Baltic sea

In Sweden and in the Baltic Sea Region our main research work has been related to estimating the capacity for CO2 in the Baltic Sea. We have also been active in establishing an international collaboration for countries around the Baltic Sea to work towards a common project. Some of the key publications are listed below.  

CO2 storage capacity estimate using models of varying complexity

The objective of our modelling is to give site-specific predictions concerning CO2 storage capacity, for which we propose integrated modelling approach (illustrated below) where models of increasing complexity have been adopted.

Flow chart of order of analyzes and modeling methods. Chart.

Figure 1. Order of analyses and modeling methods (after Yang et al., 2015

Case 1: The South Scania Site, Sweden

The South Scania site is located in the province of Scania, Sweden. The site has been studied for oil exploration, thermal energy productions with relative abundant database available and its geological model recently developed in the frame of EU FP7 project Mustang. Through adapting the stepwise approach, the semi-analytical solution (Model 1) was used to screen the possible injection rates that meet the injectivity, then the Vertical Equilibrium model (Model 2: VE) was used to down-select the injection rate for migration limits, and finally a massively parallel version of TOUGH2 (Model 3: TOUGH2MP/ECO2N) with greater complexity (solubility and capillary trapping) was used for the most detailed predictions of the long-term CO2 evolution and detailed inventory for the selected injection scenario. It is identified that the South Scania site is a migration limited system. More detailed of the model is found here.

Map over The South Scania site. Map.

Figure 2. The South Scania site

Pictures of simulation results for CO2 plume migration. Illustration.

Figure 3. TOUGH2-MP / ECO2N simulation results for CO2 plume migration (Tian et al., 2016)

Case 2: The Dalders Monocline system

Dalders Monocline is a prospect structure in Baltic Sea basin that has been identified to have potential (Cambrian, which extends northwest to Gotland in Sweden and cross several countries either on-shore or off-shore, showed below) for CO2 storage. The delineated modelling domain is determined according to the present geological knowledge, and is derived from the best caprock properties. The goal of our study is to evaluate the CO2 storage potential of Dalders Monocline from a hydrodynamic perspective.

Images of The Dalders Monocline model. Illustration.

Figure 4. The Dalders Monocline model

Under the currently considered scenario, the dominant constraint for the storage capacity is the pressure buildup. The pressure limited capacity is estimated to be about 100 Mt for a 50-year injection duration. More detail of the model is found here.

Injection pressure model 1. Illustration.

Figure 5. End-of-injection pressure build up

Injection pressure model 2. Illustration.

Figure 6. End-of-injection CO2 migration


Tian, L.,  Z. Yang, B. Jung, S. Joodaki, M. Erlström, Q. Zhou, and A. Niemi (2015). Integrated simulations of CO2 spreading and pressure response in the multilayer saline aquifer of South Scania Site, Sweden. Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology,

Yang Z., L. Tian, B. Jung, S. Joodaki, F. Fagerlund, R. Pasquali, R. Vernon, N. O’Neill, and A. Niemi (2015), Assessing CO2 storage capacity in the Dalders Monocline of  the Baltic Sea Basin using dynamic models of varying complexity. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 43, 149-160.

Yang, Z., A. Niemi, L. Tian, Saba Joodaki, and M. Erlström (2015), Modeling of pressure buildup and estimation of maximum injection rate for geological CO2 storage at the South Scania site, Sweden, Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology. Volume: 5, Issue: 3, Pages: 277-290 DOI: 10.

O’Neill, N., Pasquali, R., Vernon, R. and Niemi, A. (2014) Geological Storage of CO2 in the Southern Baltic Sea. Energy Procedia, 2014. Vol 59 (pp. 443-439)

Joodaki, S., Auli Niemi, Christopher Juhlin, Daniel Sophera, Monika Ivandica, Mikael Erlström (2013) Simulation of CO2 injection into a Baltic Sea saline aquifer and seismic monitoring of the plume. Energy Proc 40, 355 – 364.            

Yang, Z., Auli Niemi, Liang Tian, Mikael Erlström (2013) Modelling of far-field pressure plumes for carbon dioxide sequestration. Energy Proc 40, 472 – 480.

Niemi, A.  (2015) ’Unlocking the potential for CCs in the Baltic Sea’ Global CCS Institute Webinar comissioned by Elforsk 

Final Report on Prospective Sites for Geological Storage of CO2 in Southern Baltic Sea. Report prepared for the Energymyndigheten and released by Global CCS Institute, Feb 2014. Our group was responsible for the modeling part of the work. (

Processindustrin och nollvisionen. Energiforsk rapport 2015:138. Member of the working group.

Last modified: 2022-08-04