Measurements in the Atmosphere and Sea:

Atmospheric measurements on the site includes 3D wind speed with sonic anemometers, eddy covariance measurements of CO2, H20 and heat fluxes. There is a gradient system for CO2 and H20 at the site and propeller anemometers and thermocouples in the 30 m tower. Relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, global radiation and precipitation is also measured on the site. During different time periods other parameters have also been observed such as methane, oxygen and clouds.

Figure 1: Photograph from the base of the 30 m measurement tower. Sensors at different heights have changed for different time periods.
Figure 2: Illustration of the 30 m tower with approximative heights of the different levels. Sensors at different heights have changed for different time periods and missing data at one or several levels is historically not uncommon because of power supply issues, low access to funding and maintenance delays because of the remote location of the site.

Water-side measurements are taken using several different sensors semi-continously during active deployment periods. These measurements include sea surface temperature and profile measurements of temperature and conductivity (measured as proxy for salinity) at depth ranging from about 0.5 to 20 m. Also measured are carbon dioxide (pCO2), oxygen, pH, Chlorphyll, Turbidity and fDOM as well as wave parameters in collaboration with Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). Discrete manual water side measurements and sampling include Phosphorous (TP, PO4), Nitrogen (TNm, NH4, NO3+NO2) and Silica (DSi).

Figure 3: Sketch of the design of the water-side buoy measurement setup about 1 km from the tower.